R 2.3.0 の変更点



   o	The data frame argument to transform() is no longer called 'x',
	but '_data'.  Since this is an invalid name, it is less likely
	to clash with names given to transformed variables. (People
	were getting into trouble with transform(data, x=y+z).)


   o	arrows() has been changed to be more similar to segments():
	for example col=NA omits the arrow rather than as previously
	(undocumented) using par("col").
   o	The 'masked' warnings given by attach() and library() now only
	warn for functions masking functions or non-functions masking
   o	pbeta() now uses TOMS708 in all cases and so is more accurate
	in some (e.g. when lower.tail = FALSE and when one of the
	shape parameters is very small).
   o	[rc]bind and some more cases of subassignment are implemented
	for raw matrices.  (PR8529 and 8530)
   o	The number of lines of deparsed calls printed by browser() and
	traceback() can be limited by the option "deparse.max.lines".
	(Wish of PR#8638.)
   o	[pq]chisq() are considerably more accurate for moderate (up to
	80) values of ncp, and lower.tail = FALSE is fully supported
	in that region.  (They are somewhat slower than before.)
   o	chol(pivot = TRUE) now gives a warning if used on a (numerically)
	non-positive-definite matrix.
   o	cov.wt() is more efficient for 'cor = TRUE' and has a new 'method'
	argument which allows 'Maximum Likelihood'.
   o	do.call() gains an 'envir' argument.
   o	eigen() applied to an asymmetric real matrix now uses a
	tolerance to decide if the result is complex (rather than
	expecting the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues to be exactly
   o	fisher.test() now uses p-values computed via hypergeometric
	distributions for all 2 by 2 tables.  This might be slightly
	slower for a few cases, but works much better for tables with
	some large counts.
	There is a new option to simulate the p-value for larger than
	2 x 2 tables.
   o	for() now supports raw vectors as the set of indices.
   o	getNativeSymbolInfo() is vectorized for the 'name' argument.  It
	returns a named list of NativeSymbolInfo objects, but is
	backward compatible by default when called with a character
	vector of length 1, returning the NativeSymbolInfo object.
   o	help.search() no longer attempts to handle packages installed
	prior to R 2.0.0, and reports the current path to the
	package (rather than where it was originally installed: this
	information is not shown by the print() method).
   o	Added "hexmode" to parallel "octmode".
   o	install.packages() now does tilde expansion on file paths
	supplied as 'pkgs'.
   o	install.packages() has additional arguments 'configure.args' and
	'clean' which allow the caller to provide additional arguments
	to the underlying R CMD INSTALL shell command when installing
	source packages on a Unix-alike.
   o	is.loaded() has a new argument 'type' to confine the search to
	symbols for .C, .Fortran, .Call or .External: by default it
	looks for a symbol which will match any of them.  It is now
	internal and not primitive, so argument matching works in the
	usual way.
   o	The symmetry test for matrices used in eigen() has been ``exported''
	as the 'matrix' method of a new S3-generic 'isSymmetric().
   o	.leap.seconds and the internal adjustment code now know about
	the 23rd leap second on 2005-12-31: the internal code uses a
	run-time test to see if the OS does.
   o	The 'col' argument of legend() now defaults to par("col")
	(which defaults to "black", the previous default), so that
	the lines/symbols are shown in the legend in the colour that
	is used on the plot.
   o	log2() and log10() call C functions of the same name if
	available, and will then be more likely to be precise to
	machine accuracy.
   o	new.packages() gains a ... argument to pass e.g. 'destdir' to
	install.packages().  (Wish of PR#8239.)
   o	The vector passed as the first argument of the 'fn' and 'gr'
	arguments of optim() has the names (if any) given to argument
   o	options(expressions) is temporarily increased by 500 during
	error-handling.	  This enables e.g. traceback() to work when
	the error is reaching the limit on the nesting of expressions.
   o	page() accepts general R objects, not just names (and
	previously undocumented) character strings.  This allows the
	object to be specified as a call, for example.  More options
	are allowed in its '...' argument.
   o	par() and the in-line use of graphical parameters produce more
	informative error messages, distinguishing between
	non-existent pars and inappropriate use of valid pars.
	Graphical parameters 'family', 'lend', 'ljoin' and 'lmitre'
	can now be set in-line.
	There is no longer a warning if non-settable pars are used
	in-line, but there is an appropriate warning if unknown pars
	are passed.
	The length limit for the 'family' parameter has been increased
	to 200 bytes, to allow for the names of some CID-keyed fonts
	in multi-byte locales.
   o	The pdf() device now allows 'family' to be specified in the same
	generality as postscript().
   o	The pdf() device writes /FontDescriptor entries for all fonts
	except the base 14, and does not write font entries for unused
   o	Plotmath allows 'vartheta', 'varphi' and 'varsigma' (or 'stigma')
	as synonyms for 'theta1', 'phi1' and 'sigma1', and the help
	page has a note for TeX users.
   o	plot.xy() now takes its default arguments from the
	corresponding par() settings, so points(type="l") and
	lines(type="p") behave in the same way (and more obviously,
	also for type="b").
   o	poly() has a new argument 'raw', mainly for pedagogical purposes.
   o	The class "POSIXlt" now supports fractional seconds (as
	"POSIXct" has always done).  The printing of fractional seconds
	is controlled by the new option "digits.secs", and by default is off.
   o	The way families can be specified for postscript() and pdf()
	has been expanded to include CID-keyed fonts, with new
	functions Type1Font() and CIDFont() to set up such fonts
   o	prettyNum() has new arguments 'preserve.width' and 'zero.print'.
	When the former is not "none", as in calls from format() and
	formatC(), the resulting strings are kept at the desired width
	when possible even after adding of 'big.mark' or 'small.mark'.
   o	proc.time() and system.time() now record times to 1ms accuracy
	where available (most Unix-like systems).
   o	The initialization methods for the quasi() family have been
	changed to depend on the variance function, and in particular
	to work better for the "mu(1-mu)" variance function.  (PR#8486)
   o	read.table() gains a 'flush' argument passed to scan().
   o	require() now takes a 'lib.loc' argument.
   o	The second argument 'size' to sample() is required to have
	length 1, so that errors when supplying arguments are more
	easily detected.
   o	The default is now compress = !ascii in save() (but not save.image).
   o	scan() and write.table() now have some interruptibility, which
	may be useful when processing very large files.
   o	A new heuristic test, seemsS4Object() is supplied, along with a
	similar C-level test, R_seemsS4Object(object). The test
	detects probable S4 objects by their class's attribute. See
	the help page.
   o	S3 classes can now be made non-virtual S4 classes by supplying a
	prototype object in the arguments to setOldClass().
   o	splinefun() returns a function that now also has a 'deriv' argument
	and can provide up to the 3rd derivative of the interpolating
	spline, thanks to Berwin Turlach.
   o	stopifnot(A) now gives a better error message when A has NAs, and
	uses "not all TRUE" when A has length >= 2.
   o	str()'s default method has a new argument 'strict.width' which can
	be used to produce strict 'width' conforming output.  A new
	options(str = list(strict.width = *)) setting allows to control
	this for a whole session.
   o	summary.nls() has a new argument 'correlation' that defaults
	to FALSE (like summary.lm).
   o	Sys.sleep() has sub-millisecond resolution on Unix-alikes
	with gettimeofday().
   o	Sys.time() now has sub-millisecond accuracy on systems
	supporting the POSIX call gettimeofday, and clock-tick
	accuracy on Windows.
   o	The new function timestamp() adds a time stamp to the saved
	command history on consoles which support it.
   o	New function tcrossprod() for efficiently computing x %*% t(x)
	and x %*% t(y).
   o	The suffix used by tempfile() is now in hex on all platforms
	and guaranteed to be at least 6 hex digits (usually 8).
   o	trace() now works more consistently and more like its
	documentation, in particular the assertions about old tracing
	being removed for new.	For debugging purposes (of R) a
	mechanism for debugging the trace computations themselves was
	added.	See trace.R.
   o	The implementation of trace() has beem made more general by
	calling a function to do the trace interaction, and recover()
	now detects trace calls to trim the irrelevant code underneath.
   o	unserialize() can now also read a byte stream from a raw vector.
   o	The useDynLib() directive in the NAMESPACE file now accepts the
	names of the native/foreign symbols that are to be resolved in
	the DLL for use in .C/.Call/.Fortran/.External calls.  These
	can be used as regular R variables instead of the (routine
	name, PACKAGE) pairs currently recommended.  Alternative names
	can be given for the R variables mapping to these symbols.
	The native routine registration information can also be used
	directly via useDynLib(name, .registration = TRUE).  See the
	'Writing R Extensions' manual for more details.
	checkFF() (package 'tools') has been updated accordingly.
   o	validObject() has an option complete=TRUE that recursively
	checks the objects in the slots.  Not used when new(...)
	checks validity.
   o	New Vectorize() function, a wrapper for mapply().
   o	write.ftable() has gained an argument 'append = FALSE' (thanks to
	Stephen Weigand).
   o	On Unix-alikes, X11() now has arguments to request the initial
	position of the window, and 'gamma' defaults to the value of
	getOptions("gamma").  These changes are consistent with the
	windows() device.
   o	X11() and the Unix-alike data entry window can have properties
	(including geometry) set by X resources: see their help files.
   o	xy.coords() & xyz.coords() now have NULL defaults for their 'y' or
	'y' and 'z' arguments.	This is more consistent with their earlier
	documentation, and may be convenient for using them.
   o	Non-syntactic names of list elements are now printed quoted by
	backticks rather than double quotes.
   o	There is some basic checking for imminent C stack overflow (when
	the evaluation depth and the user interrupts are checked).
	On systems with suitable OS support (not Windows), segfaults
	from C stack overflow are caught and treated as an R error.
	New function Cstack_info() reports on stack size and usage.
   	options(expressions) reverts to the default of 5000 now
	stack checking is in place.
   o	Package tcltk does not try to initialize Tk on Unix-alikes
	unless a DISPLAY variable is present.  This allows packages
	dependent on tcltk to be installed without access to an X server.
   o	The code used to guess timezone offsets where not supplied by
	the OS uses a different algorithm that is more likely to guess
	the summer-time transitions correctly.
   o	Package tools contains translation tables 'Adobe_glyphs' and
   o	Changed the environment tree to be rooted in an empty
	environment, available as emptyenv().  baseenv() has been
	modified to return an environment with emptyenv() as parent,
	rather than NULL.
   o	The method $.DLLInfo resolves the specified symbol in the DLL,
	returning a NativeSymbolInfo object.  Use [[ to access the actual
	values in the DLLInfo object.
   o	On systems with either vasprintf or both va_copy and a vsnprintf
	which reports the size of buffer required, connections such as
	gzfile() and bzfile() can now write arbitrarily long lines,
	not just 100000 chars.
   o	The R session temporary directory is now set in C code using
	the same algorithm whether or not the shell front-end is used
	and on all platforms.  This looks at environment variables
	TMPDIR, TMP and TEMP in turn, and checks if they point to a
	writable directory.
   o	Some of the classical tests put unnecessary restrictions on the
	LHS in the formula interface (e.g., t.test(x+y ~ g) was not
   o	On suitably equipped Unix-alike systems, segfaults, illegal
	operations and bus errors are caught and there is a simple
	error-handler which gives the user some choice as to what to
	do in interactive use. [Experimental.]
	On Windows access violations and illegal instructions are
	caught with a simple error handler.  [Experimental.]
   o	Tracebacks now include calls such as .C/.Fortran/.Call, which
	will help if errors occur in R code evaluated by compiled code
	and in tracebacks presented by the segfault etc handlers.
   o	Treatment of signature objects and method definition objects has
	been modified to give cleaner printing and more consistency in
	the treatment of signatures.  A sometimes useful utility,
	methodSignatureMatrix(), is now exported.
   o	R refrains from printing a final EOL upon exiting the main loop
	if the quiet flag is on and if the save action is known (e.g. this
	is true for --slave).


   o	The unused graphical parameter "type" has been removed: it
	invited confusion with the 'type' argument to default methods
	of plot(), points() and lines().
   o	nlsMethod() and profiler() are no longer exported from the stats
	namespace (and nlsMethod.plinear() is no longer registered as
	a method, as nlsMethod() was not generic).
   o	The re-named tcltk functions tkcmd, tkfile.tail, tkfile.dir,
	tkopen, tkclose, tkputs, tkread are now formally deprecated.
   o	La.chol() and La.chol2inv() are deprecated (they have since R
	1.7.0 been the same as the default options of chol() and chol2inv).
   o	The use of install.R and R_PROFILE.R files in packages is
	deprecated: use the DESCRIPTION file instead to arrange to
	save an image or to load dependent packages.
	The following command-line options to INSTALL are deprecated
	(use the fields in the DESCRIPTION file instead):
	-s --save --no-save --lazy --no-lazy --lazy-data --no-lazy-data



   o	Support for East Asian CID-keyed fonts in pdf() and postscript().
	Although these usually contain Latin characters no accurate
	AFMs are available and so CID-keyed fonts are intended only
	for use with CJK characters.
   o	Wide-character width functions wc[s]width are provided that
	overcome problems found with OS-supplied ones (and those
	previously used by R on Windows).  This means that
	double-width CJK characters are now supported on all
	platforms.  It seems that the width of some characters (and
	not just CJK characters) depends on which CJK locale's fonts
	are in use and also on the OS.
	Revised wide-character classification functions are
	provided for use on Windows, AIX and MacOS X to replace
	deficient OS-supplied ones.
  o	There is support for MBCS charsets in the pictex() graphics
	device, and rotated (by 90 degrees) text may work better.
  o	The \u (and \U except on Windows) notation for characters which
	is supported by the parser in all MBCS charsets is now always
	interpreted as a Unicode point, even on platforms which do not
	encode wchar_t in Unicode.  These are now a syntax error in
	single-byte locales.
   o	The default encoding for postscript() and pdf() is chosen to
	be suitable for the current locale, if that is a single-byte
	locale which is supported.  This covers European (including
	Greek) and Cyrillic languages.
	In UTF-8 locales, a suitable single-byte encoding is chosen
	for postscript() and pdf(), and text translated to it.


   o	Support for MBCS is only enabled if iconv is found and it
	supports enough conversions.  (libiconv does.)
   o	In an MBCS locale, make check now translates the graphics
	examples from Latin-1.	This ensures that they will work
	correctly in UTF-8: it is possible that in other MBCS locales
	they will now fail (rather than work completely incorrectly).
   o	There is a new test, 'test-Docs', which as part of 'make
	check-devel' tests the code in the documentation.  Currently
	it runs doc/manual/R-{exts,intro}.R and the compiled code in
   o	The workaround to allow an external LAPACK-containing BLAS
	such as libsunperf to be used with the internal LAPACK has
	been removed.  If you have such a library you may now need
	to use --with-lapack.  It is no longer possible to use some
	older versions of libsunperf, e.g. Forte 7 on 64-bit builds.
   o	A substitute for mkdtemp is provided, so it is now always
	used for R_TempDir.
   o	Most of the functions checked for by 'configure' also have
	declarations checked for in the appropriate header.
   o	The top-level documentation files AUTHORS COPYING.LIB COPYRIGHTS
	FAQ RESOURCES THANKS have been moved to doc, and COPYING and NEWS
	are installed there.  The file Y2K has been removed from the
   o	The extension .lo is no longer used in building R (only in
	the optional build of libRmath.so): this allows a considerable
	simplification of the Makefiles.
   o	Direct support for f2c has been removed: it can still be used
	via a script which makes it look like a Fortran compiler.
	(src/scripts/f77_f2c is an example of such a script.)
   o	There is a new flag SAFE_FFLAGS which is used for the
	compilation of dlamc.f.	 It is set by configure for known
	problem cases (recent g77 and gfortran), but can be overridden
	by the user.
   o	The standard autoconf macros for large-file support are now used,
	and these are enabled unless --disable-largefile is specified.
	This replaces --enable-linux-lfs (and is now selected by default).
   o	Visibility attributes are used where supported (gcc4/gfortran on
	some platforms, also gcc3/g77 on FC3 and partially elsewhere).
	The main benefit should be faster loading (and perhaps better
	optimized code) in some of the dynamic shared objects (e.g.
	libR.so and stats.so).
   o	The *PICFLAGS are taken to be -fpic rather than -fPIC where
	possible.   This will make no difference on most platforms:
	-fPIC is needed on Sparc (and still used there), but -fpic
	should give slightly better performance on PowerPC (although
	-fPIC is used on PPC64 as it is needed to build libR.so there).
   o	More use is made of inlining for small utility functions such
	as isReal.  Because this can only be done portably with C99
	constructs (and we know of no actual implementation), this is
	only done for the GNU C compiler.
   o	There is an experimental feature to allow shared installations
	of sub-architectures.  See the R-admin manual.
   o	All platforms now use R's internal implementation of strptime,
	which allows fractional seconds.  (The major platforms were
	already using it.)
   o	The dlcompat work-around for old Mac OS X systems (<= 10.2)
	has been removed.  External dlcompat must be installed if needed.


   o	R CMD check works for packages whose package name is different
	from the directory name in which it is located.
   o	R CMD INSTALL now uses more randomness in the temporary
	directory name even on systems without mktemp -d.
   o	The version string shown in the startup message and by
	"R --version", and that stored in variable R.version.string
	are now in exactly the same format.
   o	The base name of a help file needs to be valid as part of a file://
	URL, so R CMD check now checks the names are ASCII and do not
	contain % .
   o	R CMD check now warns about unknown sections in Rd files, and
	invalid names for help, demo and R files, as well as unlikely
	file names in the 'src' directory.  The latter is controlled
	by option --check-subdirs and by default is done if checking a
	tarball without a configure script.
	R CMD build excludes invalid files in the 'man', 'R' and 'demo'
   o	\usepackage[noae]{Sweave} in the header of an Sweave file
	supresses auto-usage of the ae package ("almost European"
	fonts) and T1 input encoding.


   o	Markup such as --, ---, < and > is handled better when
	converting .Rd files to [C]HTML.
   o	There is new markup \link[=dest]{name} to generate a link to topic
	'dest' which is shown as 'name', and \linkS4class{abc} which
	expands to \link[=abc-class]{abc}, for cross-referencing the
	recommended form of documentation for S4 classes.


   o	There is now some support for Fortran 90/95 code in packages:
	see `Writing R Extensions'.
   o	Installation of man sources and demos is now done by R code.
	The restrictions on the names of help files, R files and
	of demos are now enforced (see `Writing R Extensions').
   o	Packages which contain compiled code can now have more than
	one dot in their name even on Windows.
   o	The Meta/hsearch.rds database saved now contains LibPath="".
	This information is now always recreated when help.search() is
	run, but the field is retained for back-compatibility.
   o	update.packages() now has a '...' argument to be passed to
	install.packages(), including the formerly separate arguments
	'destdir' and 'installWithVers'.
   o	Make macros AR and RANLIB are now declared in etc/Makeconf for
	use by packages which wish to make static libraries.

C レベルの機能

   o	qgamma and rgamma in Rmath.h now check for non-positive arguments.
   o	The BLAS which ships with R now contains the complete set of
	double-complex BLAS routines, rather than just those used in R.
	<R_ext/BLAS.h> has been corrected to add the missing
	double-precision BLAS functions drotmg and drotm, and to
	exclude lsame (which is a Lapack auxiliary function and is now
	declared in <R_ext/Lapack.h>).	It also includes the double
	complex routines added for this release of R provided Fortran
	doublecomplex is usable on the platform.
   o	<R_ext/BLAS.h> and <R_ext/Lapack.h> now declare all the entry
	points as 'extern'.
   o	The flag SAFE_FFLAGS is made available to packages via
	etc/Makeconf and R CMD config.	It can be used where
	optimization needs to be defeated, e.g. in LAPACK setup.
   o	getNativeSymbolInfo has a withRegistrationInfo argument which
	causes the address field to be a reference to the registration
	information if it is available for that symbol.	 If the
	registration information is not available, the address is a
	reference to the native symbol. The default is FALSE which is
	backward compatible, returning just the address of the symbol
	and ignoring registration information.
   o	errorcall and warningcall are now declared in <Rinternals.h>
	(they might be needed in front-ends).
   o	R_FlushConsole and R_ProcessEvents are now declared in <R.h>.
   o	The R_Sock* functions supporting socket connections are no
	longer declared in R-ftp-http.h as they are not loaded into R
	itself, and are now hidden in the module's DLL on suitable systems.


   o	Quoted arguments to the R script after --args are now
	passed quoted to the R executable and so will be shown as
	expected by commandArgs().  (They were previously split at
	whitespace even inside quotes on Unix-alikes but not on
   o	axis() now supports pars 'xaxp'/'yaxp' as inline arguments.
   o	sort() now does not return inappropriate attributes such as
	"dim" and "tsp": it only returns names.
	sort(x, partial=) no longer returns unsorted names, and drops
	names (since it is supplied for efficiency).
   o	Use of non-central F in pf() gives accurate values for larger ncp.
   o	R CMD build --binary does a better job of cleaning up after
	failure to re-make vignettes.
   o	reg-test-1.R tested system(intern=TRUE) which depends on popen
	and so is not supported on all platforms.
   o	Changed apparent mis-spelling of "Gibraltar" in dataset 'eurodist'.
   o	sysconf() is now used to find the number of clock ticks/second:
	under some circumstances glibc reported CLK_TCK = 60 when the
	true value was 100.
   o	identical() was not allowing for embedded nuls in character
	strings. (NB: the comparison operators including == do not,
	and never will.)
   o	The profile() and profiler() methods for "nls" objects now
	support algorithm = "plinear" and algorithm = "port".
   o	The signal handlers for signals USR1 and USR2 where not
	restored if the signal arrived when interrupts were suspended.
   o	Certain combinations of S4 inheritance could cause inherited
	methods to override some directly specified methods.
   o	Some cases of named signatures in calls to setMethod() caused errors.
   o	all.equal() is now more consistent and "picky" about mismatching
	attributes, in particular names(); this is a part of the
	propositions by Andy Piskorkski (PR#8191).
   o	load() when applied to a connection leaves it open/not as it
	found it, and checks explicitly for having a binary readable
   o	The p-values given by stat.anova() (called from several
	anova() methods) are now NA (rather than spurious) if
	non-nested models give rise to changes in deviance with a
	different sign from changes in degrees of freedom.
   o	Built-ins were reported as the relevant call in C-level error()s
	iff R profiling was in progress.  Now they are never reported.
   o	Too-long signatures (with no names) were not being caught
	in setMethod().
   o	Slot names in prototype() are being more thoroughly checked.
   o	signif() is more likely to follow the 'round to even' rule for
	exactly representable numbers, e.g. signif(0.25, 1).  (Related
	to PR#8452.)
   o	nls() now works correctly with some low-dimensional fits,
	e.g. with one or zero non-linear parameters.
   o	glm() could give an inappropriate error message if all
	possible coefficients were invalid (e.g. a log-linear binomial
	model with no intercept and a not all positive predictor).
   o	solve() gives clearer error messages for some incorrect usages.
	(PR#8494 and similar)
   o	The gaussian() family was missing the 'valideta' component
	(which could be needed for the "inverse" link function).
	The starting values supplied by the gaussian family could be
	invalid for the "log" and "inverse" link functions.  This is
	now reported.
   o	data.matrix() did not work correctly on zero-row data frames.
	(PR#8496 and other problems.)
   o	The DSC comments in the files from postscript(onefile=FALSE) now
	label all files as having page 1 of 1, as some other software
	seems to expect that.
   o	The axis labels chosen for logarithmic axis are now less
	likely to be linear and inappropriate (when the range is more
	than 10 and less than 100).  (PR#1235)
   o	Staircase lines (types "s" and "S") are now drawn
	continuously rather than a point at a time and so line types,
	mitring and so on work. (PR#2630)
   o	Calling par(mfg) before doing any plotting resulted in NewPage
	never being called on the device, which in turn resulted in
	incorrect output for postcript() and pdf() devices.  (Reported
	by Marc Schwartz in discussion of the non-bug PR#7820.)
   o	terms.formula needed to add parentheses to formulae with
	terms containing '|'.  (PR#8462)
   o	pbirthday() and qbirthday() now also work for very improbable
	events {those you are typically *not* interested in}.
   o	Only source help files starting with an upper- or lower-case
	letter or digit and extension .Rd or .rd are documented to be
	processed.  This is more liberal in that starting with a digit
	is now also allowed, but rule is now enforced.
   o	nls(algorthm="port") was always taking positive numeric
	differences and so could exceed the upper bounds.
   o	methods:::.asEnvironmentPackage() was not allowing for
	versioned installs.
   o	.find.package() now reports which package(s) it cannot find in
	the case it stops with an error.
   o	The standard Unix-alike version of file.show() gives an
	informative message if it cannot open a file rather than the
	(possibly incorrect) 'NO FILE'.
   o	window() did not allow non-overlapping ranges with
	extend = TRUE.	(PR#8545)
   o	pbinom(size = 0) now returns correct values (not NaN).	(PR#8560)
   o	[dp]binom(x, *) for x < 0 now always returns 0. (PR#8700)
	analogous change in pgeom(), pnbinom() and ppois().
   o	[dqpr]geom and [dpqr]nbinom() now all consistently accept prob = 1
	but not prob = 0.  qgeom(prob=1) now gives the correct values
	(not -1).
   o	INSTALL on Unix-alikes was not loading dependent packages when
	preparing for lazy-loading.
   o	qcauchy(1) now gives +Inf instead of just a very large number.
   o	df(0, f1, *) now properly returns Inf, 1, or 0 for f1 < , = , or > 2.
   o	qbinom(), qnbinom() and qpois() now use a better search and
	normally reach the answer very quickly when it is large
	(instead of being slow or infinite-looping).
   o	pt(x, df) lost accuracy in the far tails (when |x| > 1e154) for
	small df (like df = 0.001 for which such extremes are not unlikely).
   o	dbeta(x, a, b) underflowed internally and incorrectly gave 0
	for very small x and a.
   o	None of the warnings about convergence failures or loss of
	precision in nmath (distribution and special functions) were
	being reported to the R user.
   o	dnt was missing from standalone nmath (under Unix-alikes).
   o	split() now accepts factors with numeric (but not storage mode
	integer) codes.
   o	The utilities such as 'check' now report active version numbers
	again, as SVN 'last changed revision' numbers.
   o	addmargins() did not accept a name for 'FUN', only an expression.
   o	'+' for POSIXt objects now takes the tzone from whichever
	object has it, so date+x is the same as x+date if x is numeric.
   o	mean.default() and var() compute means with an additional pass
	and so are often more accurate, e.g. the variance of a
	constant vector is (almost) always zero and the mean of such a
	vector will be equal to the constant value to machine
	precision.  (PR#1228)
	sum(), prod(), mean(), rowSums() and friends use a long double
	accumulator where available and so may be more accurate.  (This
	is particularly helpful on systems such as Sparc and AMD64
	where long double gives considerably greater exponent range
	and precision than double.)
   o	read.dcf() now gives a warning on malformed lines.
   o	add1.[g]lm now try harder to use the environment of the
	formula in the orginal fit to look for objects such as the
	'data' and 'subset' arguments.
   o	gaussian()$aic was inconsistent with e.g. the lm results from
	AIC() and extractAIC() for weighted fits: it treated the weights
	as case weights and not variance factors.
   o	system() on Unix-alikes ignored non-logical values of 'intern' and
	treated 'intern = NA' as true.
   o	as.table() now produces non-NA rownames when converting a
	matrix of more than 26 rows.  (PR#8652)
   o	Partial sorting used an algorithm that was intended only for a
	few values of 'partial' and so could be far slower than a full
	sort.  It now switches to a barebones full sort for more than
	10 values of 'partial' and uses a more efficient recursive
	implementation for 2...10.
   o	summary.glm() returned an estimate of dispersion of Inf for a
	gaussian glm with zero residual degrees of freedom and then
	treated that as a known value.	It now uses the estimate NaN,
	which is consistent with summary.lm().
   o	Sys.sleep() on Unix-alikes was restricted to about 2147 seconds
	and otherwise might never have returned.  (PR#8678)
   o	is(obj, Cl) could wrongly report TRUE when Cl was a classUnion and
	multiple inheritance was involved.
   o	confint[.lm / .default] used label "100 %" for level = 0.999
   o	Empty entries (i.e., extraneous ",") in NAMESPACE files now give
	a better error message early at parsing time instead of a less
	comprehensible one later at load time.
   o	all.equal(n1, n2) could erroneously return NA when n1, n2
	contained large integers.
   o	anova.mlm() didn't handle multi-df effects properly in the
	single-model case (PR#8679)
   o	anova.mlm() had its colnames mangled by data.frame() (needed
   o	summary.glm() gave an NA estimate of dispersion for fits with
	zero weights.  (PR#8720)
   o	qhyper() had too small a tolerance for right-continuity on
	some platforms so was not always an inverse to phyper().
   o	rownames<-.data.frame() and dimnames<-.data.frame() tested the
	length(s) of the replacement value(s) before coercion, which
	can change the length (e.g. for class "POSIXlt").
   o	max() and min() ignored the largest/smallest representable
	integer, as well as Inf/-Inf.  (PR#8731)
   o	write.table() assumed factors had integer codes: it now allows
	malformed factors with numeric codes (and otherwise throws an
   o	Worked around a Solaris restriction which meant that
	Sys.sleep() was only effective for times of up to one second.
   o   sink(, split=TRUE) now works correctly, but is allowed only on
       platforms that support va_copy or __va_copy.  (PR#8716)
   o	factanal(), prcomp() and princomp() now only check that columns
	in the model frame that will be used are numeric (they
	previously also checked columns which were part of negative terms
	in the formula).
   o   Misuse of $ in apply could corrupt memory.  (PR#8718)
   o	apply() could fail if the function returned NULL (e.g. if
	there was a single row).
   o	registerS3method() failed due to a typo. (It was almost never
   o	Registering an S3 method for an S3 generic in another package
	that was converted to an S4 generic in the same package as the
	S3 method, registered the method in the wrong place.
   o	Recall() used lookup for the function in use and so could fail
	if that was an S3 method not on the search path.
   o	Rdconv -t Ssgm failed if it encountered \link[opt]{arg}.
   o	uniroot() did not give a warning (as documented) if it failed
	to converge in 'maxiter' steps.  (PR#8751)
   o	eapply (and as.list.environment) did not work for the base
	environment/namespace.  (PR#8761)
   o	Added protection in configure against systems for which using
	xmkmf fails to eport a C or C++ compiler.
   o	expand.grid() was constructing a data frame 'by hand' and so
	setting integer row.names (which are documented to be
	character).  It now sets character row names, and
	row.names.data.frame() coerces to character.
   o	qbeta() used == on volatile doubles for its convergence test,
	which failed with gcc 3.3.x on ix86 Linux.  We now use a less
	fragile test (and lose a negligible amount of accuracy).
   o	ls.str() was missing inherits=FALSE, and so could have
	reported on an object of the same name but a different mode in
	the enclosure of the given environment.
   o	logLik.nls assumed that sigma^2 had been estimated, but did
	not count this in the 'df' attribute.

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Last-modified: 2023-03-25 (土) 11:19:17