R 2.2.0 の新機能・変更一覧(2005.10.06 公開)



  o   split(x, f), split<-() and unsplit() now by default split by all
      levels of a factor f, even when some are empty.
      Use split(x, f, drop = TRUE) if you want the old behavior of
      dropping empty levels.  split() and split<-() are S3 generic
      functions with new arguments 'drop' and '...' and all methods now
      should have 'drop' and '...' arguments as well.


  o   anova.mlm() now handles the single-model case.
  o   attach() now prints an information message when objects are
      masked on the search path by or from a newly attached database.
  o   New functions cdplot() and spineplot() for conditional density
      plots and spine plots or spinograms.  Spine plots are now used
      instead of bar plots for x-y scatterplots where y is a factor.
  o   The nonparametric variants of cor.test() now behave better in
      the presence of ties. The "spearman" method uses the asymptotic
      approximation in that case, and the "kendall" method likewise,
      but adds a correction for ties (this is not necessary in the
      Spearman case).
  o   density() is now an S3 generic where density.default() {former
      density()} has new argument 'weights' for specifying observation
      masses different than the default 1/N -- based on a suggestion and
      code from Adrian Baddeley.
  o   format.info() now has a 'digits' argument, and is documented
      to work for all atomic vectors (it used to work for all but
      raw vectors.).
  o   There is a new function gregexpr() which generalizes regexpr()
      to search for all matches in each of the input strings (not
      just the first match).
  o   labels() now has a method for "dist" objects (replacing that
      for names() which was withdrawn in 2.1.0).
  o   library() now explicitly checks for the existence of
      directories in 'lib.loc': this avoids some warning messages.
  o   loadNamespace(keep.source=) now applies only to that namespace
      and not others it might load to satisfy imports: this is now
      consistent with library().
  o   max.col() has a new argument for non-random behavior in the
      case of ties.
  o   memory.profile() now uses the type names returned by typeof()
      and no longer has two unlabelled entries.
  o   The default mosaicplot() method by default draws grey boxes.
  o   New algorithm "port" (the nl2sol algorithm available in the
      Port library on netlib) added to the nls() function in the
      'stats' package.
  o   object.size() now supports more types, including external
      pointers and weak references.
  o   options() now returns its result in alphabetical order, and is
      documented more comprehensively and accurately.  (Now all
      options used in base R are documented, including
      platform-specific ones.)
      Some options are now set in the package which makes use of
      them (grDevices, stats or utils) if not already set when the
      package is loaded.
  o   New option("OutDec") to set the decimal point for output conversions.
  o   New option("add.smooth") to add smoothers to a plot, currently
      only used by plot.lm().
  o   plot.lm() has two new plots (for 'which' = 5 or 6), plotting
      residuals or cook distances versus (transformed) leverages - unless
      these are constant.  Further, the new argument 'add.smooth' adds a
      loess smoother to the point plots by default, and 'qqline = TRUE'
      adds a qqline() to the normal plot.
      The default for 'sub.caption' has been improved for long calls.
  o   read.table() now passes 'allowEscapes' to scan().
  o   sample(x, size, prob, replace = TRUE) now uses a faster
      algorithm if there are many reasonably probable values.  (This
      does mean the results will be different from earlier versions
      of R.)  The speedup is modest unless 'x' is very large _and_
      'prob' is very diffuse so that thousands of distinct values
      will be generated with an appreciable frequency.
  o   scatter.smooth() now works a bit more like other plotting
      functions (e.g., accepts a data frame for argument 'x').
      Improvements suggested by Kevin Wright.
  o   signif() on complex numbers now rounds jointly to give the
      requested number of digits in the larger component, not
      independently for each component.
  o   New generic function simulate() in the 'stats' package with
      methods for some classes of fitted models.
  o   smooth.spline() has a new argument 'keep.data' which allows to
      provide residuals() and fitted() methods for smoothing splines.
  o   Attempting source(file, chdir=TRUE) with a URL or connection
      for 'file' now gives a warning and ignores 'chdir'.
  o   source() closes its input file after parsing it rather than
      after executing the commands, as used to happen prior to
      2.1.0.  (This is probably only significant on Windows where
      the file is locked for a much shorter time.)
  o   split(), split<-(), unsplit() now have a new argument 'drop = FALSE',
      by default not dropping empty levels; this is *not* back compatible.
  o   sprintf() now supports asterisk `*' width or precision
      specification (but not both) as well as `*1$' to `*99$'.  Also the
      handling of `%' as conversion specification terminator is now
      left to the system and doesn't affect following specifications.
  o   The plot method for stl() now allows the colour of the range
      bars to be set (default unchanged at "light gray").
  o   Added tclServiceMode() function to the tcltk package to allow
      updating to be suspended.
  o   terms.formula() no longer allows '.' in a formula unless there
      is a (non-empty) 'data' argument or 'allowDotAsName = TRUE' is
      supplied.  We have found several cases where 'data' had not
      been passed down to terms() and so '.' was interpreted as a
      single variable leading to incorrect results.
  o   New functions trans3d(), the 3D -> 2D utility from persp()'s
      example, and extendrange(), both in package 'grDevices'.
  o   [dqp]wilcox and wilcox.test work better with one very large sample
      size and an extreme first argument.
  o   The specification of the substitutions done when processing
      Renviron files is more liberal: see ?Startup.  It now
      accepts forms like R_LIBS=${HOME}/Rlibrary:${WORKGRP}/R/lib .
  o   Added recommendation that packages have an overview man page
      <pkg>-package.Rd, and the promptPackage() function to create a
      skeleton version.
  o   Replacement indexing of a data frame by a logical matrix index
      containing NAs is allowed in a few more cases, in particular
      always when the replacement value has length one.
  o   Complex arithmetic is now done by C99 complex types where
      supported.  This is likely to boost performance, but is
      subject to the accuracy with which it has been implemented.
  o   The printing of complex numbers has changed, handling numbers
      as a whole rather than in two parts.  So both real and
      imaginary parts are shown to the same accuracy, with the
      'digits' parameter referring to the accuracy of the larger
      component, and both components are shown in fixed or
      scientific notation (unless one is entirely zero when it is
      always shown in fixed notation).



  o   LDFLAGS now defaults to -L/usr/local/lib64 on most Linux
      64-bit OSes (but not ia64).  The use of lib/lib64 can be
      overridden by the new variable LIBnn.
  o   We now test for wctrans_t, as apparently some broken OSes have
      wctrans but not wctrans_t (which is required by the relevant
      standards) .
  o   Any external BLAS found is now tested to see if the complex
      routine zdotu works correctly: this provides a compatibility
      test of compiler return conventions.
  o   Installation without NLS is now cleaner, and does not install
      any message catalogues.
  o   The (not-recommended) options --with-system-zlib,
      --with-system-bzlib and -with-system-pcre now have 'system' in
      the name.
  o   If a Java runtime environment is detected at configure time
      its library path is appended to LD_LIBRARY_PATH or equivalent.
      New Java-related variables JAVA_HOME (path to JRE/JDK), JAVA_PROG
      (path to Java interpreter), JAVA_LD_PATH (Java library path)
      and JAVA_LIBS (flags to link against JNI) are made available
      in Makeconf.
  o   Ei-ji Nakama was contributed a patch for FPU control with the
      Intel compilers on ix86 Linux.

Mac OS X へのインストール


  o   The encoding for a packages' 00Index.html is chosen from the
      Encoding: field (if any) of the DESCRIPTION file and from the
      \encoding{} fields of any Rd files with non-ASCII titles.
      If there are conflicts, first-found wins with a warning.
  o   R_HOME/doc/html/packages.html is now remade by R not Perl code.
      This may result in small changes in layout and a change in
      encoding (to UTF-8 where supported).
  o   The return value of new.packages() is now updated for any
      packages which may be installed.
  o   available.packages() will read a compressed PACKAGES.gz file in
      preference to PACKAGES if available on the repository: this
      will reduce considerably the download time on a dialup connection.
      The downloaded information about a repository is cached for the
      current R session.
  o   The information about library trees found by
      installed.packages() is cached for the current session, and
      updated only if the modification date of the top-level
      directory has been changed.
  o   A data index is now installed for a package with a 'data' dir
      but no 'man' dir (even though it will have undocumented data objects).
  o   contrib.url path for type="mac.binary" has changed from
      bin/macosx/<version> to bin/macosx/<arch>/contrib/<version>
      where <arch> corresponds to R.version$arch


  o   checkFF() used by R CMD check has since R 2.0.0 not reported
      missing PACKAGE arguments when testing installed packages with
      namespaces.  It now
      - treats installed and source packages in the same way.
      - reports missing arguments unless they are in a function in
        the namespace with a useDynLib declaration (as the
        appropriate DLL for such calls can be searched for).
  o   codoc() allows help files named pkg_name-defunct.Rd to have
      undocumented arguments (and not just base-defunct.Rd).


  o   C function massdist() {called from density()} has new argument
      'xmass' (= weights).
  o   Raw vectors passed to .C() are now passed as unsigned char *
      rather than as SEXPs.  (Wish of Keith Frost, PR#7853)
  o   The search for symbols in a .C/.Call/... call without a
      package argument now searches for an enclosing namespace and
      so finds functions defined within functions in a namespace.
  o   R_max_col() has new (5th) argument '*ties_meth' allowing
      non-random behavior in the case of ties.
  o   The header files have been rationalized: the BLAS routine
      LSAME is now declared in BLAS.h not Linpack.h, Applic.h no
      longer duplicates routines from Linpack.h, and Applic.h is
      divided into API and non-API sections.
  o   memory.c has been instrumented so that Valgrind can track R's
      internal memory management.  To use this, configure using
      where level is 1 or 2.  Both levels will find more bugs with
      gctorture(TRUE).  Level 2 makes Valgrind run extremely slowly.
  o   Some support for raw vectors has been added to Rdefines.h.
  o   R_BaseEnv has been added, to refer to the base environment.
      This is currently equal to R_NilValue, but it will change in
      a future release.


  o   %/% has been adjusted to make x == (x %% y) + y * ( x %/% y )
      more likely in cases when extended-precision registers were
  o   Operations on POSIXct objects (such as seq(), max() and
      subsetting) try harder to preserve time zones and warn if
      inconsistent time zones are used.
  o   as.function.default() no longer asks for a bug report when
      given an invalid body. (PR#1880, PR#7535, PR#7702)
  o   Hershey fonts and grid output (and therefore lattice output)
      now rescale correctly in fit-to-window resizing on a Windows
      graphics device.  Line widths also scale now.
  o   The X11() device now hints the window manager so that decorations
      appear reliably under e.g. the GNOME WM  (contributed
      by Ei-ji Nakama).
  o   Subsetting a matrix or an array as a vector used to attempt to
      use the row names to name the result, even though the
      array might be longer than the row names.  Now this is only
      done for 1D arrays when it is done in all cases, even matrix
      indexing.  (Tidies up after the fix to PR#937.)
  o   Constants in mathlib are declared 'const static double' to
      avoid performance issues with the Intel Itanium compiler.
  o   capabilities() used partial matching but was not documented
      to: it no longer does so.
  o   kernel(1,0) printed wrongly;  kernel(<name-string>, *) now returns
      a named kernel in all cases; plot(kernel(.),..) is more flexible.
  o   installed.packages() and download.packages() now always
      return a matrix as documented, possibly with 0 rows (rather than
      a 0-length character vector or NULL).
  o   Arithmetic operations on data frames no longer coerce the
      names to syntatically valid names.
  o   Units are now properly recycled in grid layouts
      when 'widths' or 'heights' are shorter than the number of
      columns or rows (PR#8014).
  o   spline()/spinefun()'s C code had a memory access buglet which
      never lead to incorrect results.  (PR#8030)
  o   sum() was promoting logical arguments to double not integer
      (as min() and other members of its group do).
  o   loess() had a bug causing it to occasionally miscalculate
      standard errors (PR#7956).  Reported by Benjamin Tyner, fixed
      by Berwin Turlach.
  o   library(keep.source=) was ignored if the package had a
      namespace (the setting of options("keep.source.pkgs") was
      always used).
  o   hist.POSIXct() and hist.Date() now respect par("xaxt").
  o   The 'vfont' argument was not supported correctly in title(),
      mtext(), and axis().  The 'vfont' argument is superseded by
      the par(family=) approach introduced in 2.0.0.  This bug-fix
      just updates the warning messages and documentation to
      properly reflect the new order of things.
  o   The C-level function PrintGenericVector could overflow if
      asked to print a length-1 character vector of several thousand
      characters.  This could happen when printing a list matrix,
      and was fatal up to 2.1.1 and silently truncated in 2.1.1 patched.
  o   What happened for proc.time() and system.time() on
      (Unix-alike) systems which do not support timing was
      incorrectly documented.  (They both exist but throw an error.)
      Further, systen.time() would give an error in its on.exit
  o   weighted.residuals() now does sensible things for glm() fits:
      in particular it now agrees with an lm() fit for a Gaussian glm()
      fit.  (PR#7961).
  o   The 'lm' and 'glm' methods for add1() took the weights and
      offset from the original fit, and so gave errors in the
      (dubious) usage where the upper scope resulted in a smaller
      number of cases to fit (e.g. by omitting missing values in new
      variables).  (PR#8049)
  o   Setting new levels on a factor dropped all existing
      attributes, including class "ordered".
  o   format.default(justify="none") now by default converts NA
      character strings, as the other values always did.
  o   format.info() often gave a different field width from format()
      for character vectors (e.g. including missing values or
      non-printable characters).
  o   axis() now ensures that if 'labels' are supplied as character
      strings or expressions then 'at' is also supplied (since the
      calculated value for 'at' can change under resizing).
  o   Fixed segfault when PostScript font loading fails, e.g., when
      R is unable to find afm files (reported by Ivo Welch).
  o   terms.formula() got confused if the 'data' argument was a list with
      non-syntactic names.
  o   prompt() and hence package.skeleton() now produce *.Rd files that
      give no errors (but warnings) when not edited, much more often.
  o   promptClass() and promptMethods() now also escape "%" e.g. in '%*%'
      and the latter gives a message about the file written.
  o   wilcox.test() now warns when conf.level is set higher than
      achievable, preventing errors (PR#3666) and incorrect answers
      with extremely small sample sizes.
  o   The default (protection pointer) stack size (the default for
      '--max-ppsize') has been increased from 10000 to 50000 in order to
      match the increased default options("expressions") (in R 2.1.0).
  o   The R front-end was expecting --gui=tk not Tk as documented,
      and rejecting --gui=X11.
  o   Rdconv -t latex protected only the first << and >> in a chunk
      against conversion to guillemets.
  o   callNextMethod() and callGeneric() have fixes related to
      handling arguments.
  o   ls.diag() now works for fits with missing data. (PR#8139)
  o   window.default() had an incorrect tolerance and so sometimes
      created too short a series if 'start' or 'end' were zero.
  o   Some (fairly pointless) cases of reshape left a
      temporary id variable in the result (PR#8152)
  o   R CMD build used 'tar xhf' which is invalid on FreeBSD systems
      (and followed tar chf, so there could be no symbolic links in
      the tarball).
  o   Subassignment of length zero vectors to NULL gave garbage
      answers. (PR#8157)
  o   Automatic coercion of raw vectors to lists was missing, so for a
      list (or data frame) z, z[["a"]] <- raw_vector did not work
      and now does.  This also affected DF$a <- raw_vector for a
      data frame DF.
  o   The internal code for commandArgs() was missing PROTECTs.
  o   The width for strwrap() was used as one less than specified.
  o   R CMD INSTALL was not cleaning up after an unsuccessful
      install of a non-bundle which was not already installed.

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Last-modified: 2015-03-01 (日) 01:15:59